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Tense सीखे

TENSE
·       
fØ;k
ds os fofHkUu :Ik ftuds )kjk le; dh fofHkUu voLFkkvksa dk cks/k gksrk gS] mUgs
Tense dgk tkrk gSA
PRESENT TENSE
PRESENT INDEFINITE
·       
Ikgpku
& bl
Tense ds fgUnh ds okD;ksa ds vUr esa rk gS] rh gS] rs gS
vkfn ’kCn vkrs gSA
·       
Ikz;ksx
&
1- orZeku dky esa lkoZHkkSfed lR;] fu;ferk] oSKkfud rF;] dgkorksa ,oa eqgkojks vkfn ds fy, Tense dk     iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS %&                                              
The sun rises in the east.                                                                      
                        
¼lkoZHkkSfed lR;½
Sita always comes late.                                                                                                 
               
¼vknr½               
I read newspaper every morning.                                                                                             ¼fu;ferk½                                                                                         
Water freezes at zero degrees centigrade.                                                                      ¼oSKkfud rF;½
Slow and steady wins the race.                                                                                               
¼dgkor½
2- Future Tense esa ’krZ izdV djus ds fy, If ;k When ds lkFk &
    
If he comes to me, I will give him
my book.
     He will play when his father goes out.
3- orZeku
fLFkfr dk cks/k djokus ds fy, &
    
He his kill.
     They are at home.
4-
lekpkj Ik=ksa ds ’kh”kZd esa &
   
Three die in a car-truck accident.
     The primeminister visits presendent.
5- vk¡[kks
ns[kk gky lqukus ds fy, &
    
The batsman faces the bol
defensively and it coach on side and filder collects the bol and there  is no run result.
6- vkns’kkRed okD;ksa esa &
     Go into your room and learn your lesson.
     Listen carefully what I say
7- vkns’kkRed fu”ks/k okD;kssa esa &
   Don’t make a noise.
     Don’t tell a lie.
·        
Lke; lwpd ’kCn (Adverb of time) –
Always, ever, never, often, seldom, generally, usually, rarely, daily,
regularly, sometimes, occasion ally, frequently, normally, every (day/ week/ month/
year/ July/ morning….) once, twice, whenever, every time.
·      
Lkgk;d fØ;k (H.V) –
·      
ldkjkRed okD;kssa esa H.V do/does dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
·      
iz’uokpd vkSj udkjkRed okD;ksa esa H.V do/does dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
                                                                                                                                                                        1
·      
,dopu drkZ (he, she, it, Ram) – does
·      
Ckgqopu drkZ (they, we, you, boys) vkSj I – do
·      
eq[; fØ;k (M.V) – V1 (s/es/ y ds LFkku ij ies)
·      
ldkjkRed okD;ksa esa cgqopu vFkok I drkZ gksus ij dsoy v1 dk
iz;ksx djrs gSA
·      
ldkjkRed okD;ksa esa v1 ds vUr esa sh, ch, x ,o, s, ss, z gksus
ij
es tksMrs
vU;Fkk dsoy
s tksMrs gSA
·      
Y ds igys O;atu gksus ij y ds
LFkku ij
ies dk iz;ksx djrss gSA
·      
okD; jpuk (sentence pattern) –
ldkjkRed okD; = S+V1(s/es/ies) +
object.          – He teaches English.
udkjkRed okD; = S+do/does+not+v1+o              — He does not teach English.
iz’uokpd okD; = Do/Does+S+V1+object.             – Does he teach English.
iz’u + udk okD; = Do/Does+S+not+V1+object?    
— Does he not teach English.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
·        
igpku & jgk gS] jgh gS] jgs gS] gqvk gS] gq;s gS vkfn ’kCn vkrs gSA
·        
okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+is/are/am+V1+ing+object.
Neg – Sub+Is/are/am+not+v1+obj.
Ing – Is/are/am+Sub+V1+obj?
·        
Lke; lwpd ’kCn (Adverbs of Time) – Now, today,
tonight, at this time, at this moment, still, these days, now a days
·        
iz;ksx &
1- ;g Tense okLrfod orZeku dk cks/k djkrk gS tks
cksyrs le; Hkh tkjh gks ysfdu bl
Tense ds okD;ksa esa 
   dk;ksZ ds ’kq: gksus dk le;
ugha fn;k tkrk gSA
    The students are learning spoken English.
     Now I am doing my home-work.
2- Hkfo”;dkyhu iwoZ fu;ksftr dk;ZØeksa dks izdV djus ds fy, &
   My friend is going to buy a new car next
Monday.
     My sister is coming today at 5.30 p.m.
3- ;g Tense tkjh jgus okys dk;ksZ dks crkus ds fy,
dke esa fy;k tkrk gS ijUrq ;g vko’;d ugha dh dk;Z   
  Ckksyrs le; Hkh tkjh gksA
   We are learning English.
    He is playing football.
PRESENT PERFECT TENSE
·        
Ikgpku & fgUnh okD;ksa ds vUr esa pqdk gS] pqdh gS] pqds gS vkfn
’kCn vkrs gS vFkok vk gS] bZ gS] ,s gS dh /ouh vkrh gSA
·        
okD; jpuk &
Affirmative – sub+has/have+v3 +obj.
Negative – sub+has/have +not+v3 +obj.
Interogative – Has/Have+sub+v3 +
obj?
Wh-has/have+sub+v3 +obj?
·        
le; lwpd ’kCn & Yet, just, so, far, hitherto, recently, lately, already,
this(week/month/year…)
·        
iz;ksx &                                                                                  
1-    
;g Tense mu dk;ksZ ds fy, iz;qDr gksrk gS tks
vHkh gky gh esa lekIr gq;s gksA ,sls esa T;knkrj
Just, Recently, Already vkfn dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
He has just gone out.
I have already learnt my lesson.
2-    
bl Tense dk iz;ksx ,sls dk;ksZ ds fy, Hkh fd;k
tkrk gS tks Hkqrdky ls ’kq: gks ,oa orZeku esa Hkh tkjh gks ,ls okD;ksa esa
Since/for dke esa fy;s tkrs gSA
I have been hear for three weeks.
He has worked in Jaipur since 2005.
3-    
,sls dk;ksZ ds fy, Hkh bl Tense dks
dke esa fy;k tkrk gS tks Hkqrdky esa ?kVhr gks pqds gS ijUrq mudk izHkko vHkh
Hkh cuk gqvk gSA
She has cut her finger.
She has lost her sari.
The teachers have come in classroom.
     4-  bl Tense dk
iz;ksx
This
morning/Afternoon/Evening/Week/Month/Year
vkfn ds lkFk fd;k tkrk
Tkc ;s iwjs ugha gq;s gksA
I have taken for tour cups of tea today.
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
·        
vFkZ & ,sls dk;Z tks oDrk )kjk O;Dr fd;s tkus ds le; tkjh gks vkSj
dk;Z ds ’kq: gksus dk le; Hkh           
fn;k gks bl
Tense esa ’kkfey fd;s tkrs gSA
·        
igpku & fgUnh okD;ksa ds vUr esa ls jgk gS] ls jgs gS] ls jgh gS] ls jgk gwWA
·        
okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+have/has+been+v1+ing+ob+since/for+Time.
Neg – Sub+have/has+not+been+v1+ing+ob+since/for+Time.
In – Has/Have+sub+been+v1+ing+ob+since/for+Time?
  • Since/for dk iz;ksx lEca/kh fu;e &
For – For dk
iz;ksx le; dh vo/kh ds fy, gksrk gS tSls
For three hours, for
two weeks, for seven month.
Since – Since dk
iz;ksx fuf’pr le; ds fy, gksrk gS ?kMh dk le;] rkjhd] efgus dk uke] lu~] fnu dk
uke vkfn ds lkFk
Since dk iz;ksx gksrk gSA
tSls & Since 3 o’clock, Since Monday, Since 10 march, Since Jully, Since 1990, Since
morning, Since evening, Since Yesterday, Since birth, Since death, Since
marriage, Since last week, Since month
Yksfdu For – The last week/month.
  • iz;ksx &
1-      
,sls fdlh dk;Z ds lkFk tks Hkqrdky esa fdlh le; ’kq: gwvk vkSj vHkh Hkh
tkjh gSA
The Indian team has been practicing since 8 o’clock.
The student have been running for half an hout.
PAST TENSE
PAST INDEFINITE TENSE
  • vFkZ & bl Tense dk iz;ksx Hkqrdkyhu
    ?kVukvksa] dk;ksZ ,oa fu;fer :Ik ls ;k izk;% gksus okys dk;ksZ ,oa vknrksa
    dks crkus esa fd;k tkrk gSA
  • igpku & fgUnh
    okD;ksa ds vUr esa vk] bZ] ,s] dh ek=k;s vFkok Fkk] Fkh] Fks vkfn vkrs gSA
                                                                                                                                                                 
                                                                                                                                                                 
  • okD; jpuk (Sentence pattern) –
Aff – Sub+v2+obj.
Neg – Sub+did+not+v1+obj.
In – Did+sub+v1+obj?
  • le; lwpd (Adverbs) –
Last night, Last year, Long ago, Yesterday,
once, in two, Thousand eight, Some time back.
  • iz;ksx &
1-      
bl Tense dk iz;ksx Hkqrdky esa gksus okys
dk;ksZ ;k ?kVukvksa dks crkus ds fy, fd;k tkrk gSA tc bl
Tense dk iz;ksx gksrk gS rks okD; esa fdlh ’kCn ds )kjk Hkqrdky ds le; dks
O;Dr fd;k tkrk gSA
He wrote a letter last year.
India became free in 1947.
2-      
fdlh O;fDr ;k oLrq ds ckjs esa fdlh izdkj dh lwpuk crkus ds fy, “B” fØ;k ds f}rh; :i Was/Were
dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
He was at this home.
3-      
Tkc fdlh dk;Z dk o.kZu le;kof/k ds iwjs gksus ls igys fd;k tk;k rks Present Perfect dk vkSj le;kof/k ds iwjs gksus ds
Ik’pkr~ fd;k tk;s rks
Present
Indefinite
dk
iz;ksx gksxkA
I have a taken a lot of tea today.
He took a lot of tea yesterday.
 
PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
  • bl dky ds okD;ksa ls
    izdV gksrk gS fd Hkqrdky esa dk;Z tkjh Fkk vkSj lekIr ugha gqvk ;k bl dky
    ds okD;ksa esa dk;Z ds ’kq: gksus dk le; ugha fn;k gksrk gSA
  • igpku & fgUnh ds
    okD;ksa ds vUr esa jgk Fkk] jgh Fkh] jgs Fks vkfn vkrs gSA
  • okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+Was/Were+v1+ing+obj.
Neg – Sub+Was/Were+not+v1+ing+obj.
Int – Was/Were+Sub+v1+ing+obj?
  • le; lwpd ’kCn & As, When, While.
  • iz;ksx &
1-      
bldk iz;ksx ,sls dk;Z ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS tks Hkqrdky esa tkjh jgk gksA
He was living in Jaipur last year.
2-      
bldk iz;ksx nks ;k nks ls vf/kd okD;ksa ds fy, Hkh gksrk gS tks Hkqrdky
ds lkFk & lkFk tkjh jgs gks ;s izk;
: While ls tqMs+ gksrs gSA
I was writing while my friends were reading.
3- bldk iz;ksx ,sls dk;ksZ ds fy, Hkh
gksrk gS tks Hkqrdky esa ml le; rd tkjh jgs gks vkSj mlh chps
 dksbZ nwljk dk;Z Hkh gqvk gksA bl nwljs dk;Z
ds fy, tks rqjUr lekIr gks tkrk gS
Past Indefinite dk
 
 iz;ksx djrs gS ,oa tkjh jgus okys
dk;Z ds fy,
Past Continuous dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
  
I was watching a movie on T.V when
father came into my bed room.
PAST PERFECT TENSE
  • vFkZ & bl Tense ds okD;ksa ls
    Li”V gksrk gS fd dk;Z dks lekIr gq;s dkQh le; gks x;k gSA
  • igpku & fgUnh ds
    okD;ksa ds vUr esa Pkqdk Fkk] pqdh Fkh] fy;k Fkk] fy, Fks vkfn ’kCnksa dk
    iz;ksx gksrk gSA
  • okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+Has+v3+obj.                                                                                                                     
Neg – Sub+Has+not+v3+obj.
  • le; lwpd ’kCn & After, before, when, til,
    until, as soon as.
  • Ikz;ksx &
1-      
bldk iz;ksx ,sls dk;ksZ ds fy, fd;k tkrk gS tks Hkqrdky esa fdlh nwljs
dk;Z ls igys lekIr gks x;s gks mlesa
Past Perfect Tense dk
vkSj tk ckn esa gksrk gS mlesa
Past
Indefinite Tense
dk
iz;ksx gksrk gSA ,ls okD;ksa dks tksM+us ds fy,
Before, When, After dk
iz;ksx gksrk gSSA
She had stept before her mother came.
The match started him after I had reached
the stadium.
When the bell rang, we had finished the
work.
2-      
bl dky dk iz;ksx ,sls ’krZokpd okD; esa gksrk gS ftlesa ’krZ Hkqrdky
esa iwjh u gqbZ gksA
If you had worked hard, you would have passed.
3-      
Hkqrdky esa fdlh viw.kZ bPNk dks O;Dr dju ds fy, bl Tense dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
I wish I had not called him.
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
  • vFkZ & bl Tense ds okD;ksa ls izdV
    gksrk gS fd dk;Z Hkqrdky esa fdlh le; pkyq gksdj ckn rd pyrk jgk Hkqrdky
    esa dk;Z jgus dk le; fn;k gksrk gSA
  • igpku & fgUnh
    okD;ksa ds vUr esa ls jgk Fkk] ls jgh Fkh] ls jgs Fks vkfn ’kCnksa dk
    iz;ksx gksrk gSA
  • okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+had+been+v1+ing+obj+since/for+Time.
Neg – Sub+had+not+been+v1+ing+obj+since/for+Time.
Int – Had+Sub+been+v1+ing+obj+since/for+Time?
  • le; lwpd ’kCn & Since/For/All+Past
    Indefinite Tense
  • iz;ksx &
1-      
bldk iz;ksx ,sls dk;Z ds fy, gksrk gS tks Hkqrdky esa gh fdlh le; pkyw
gksdj Hkqrdky esa gh fdlh
le; pkyw jgk gksA
My friends had been singing a  song since 9 o’clock.
FUTURE TENSE
FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE
  • vFkZ & bl dky ls
    Kkr gksrk gS fd dk;Z Hkfo”; esa gksxkA
  • igpku & fgUnh ds
    okD;ksa ds vUr esa xk] xh] xs vkfn ’kCn vkrs gSA
  • okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+Shall/Will+v1+obj.
Neg – Sub+Shall/Will+not+v1+obj.
Int – Shall/Will+Sub+v1+obj.
  • le; lwpd ’kCn & Tomorrow, Next (day, week,
    month, year), In a few days, Never, Always.
  • lkekU; fu;e &
  • I rFkk We ds lkFk Shall dk iz;ksx djrs gS
    ’ks”ks lHkh dŸkkZvksa ds lkFk
    Will dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
  • NOTE – vk/kqfud vaxzsth esa
    I rFkk We ds lkFk
    Hkfo”;dky O;Dr djus ds fy,
    Shall ds LFkku ij Will
    dk iz;kx djus
    yxk tkus yxk gS Yksfdu iz’uokpd okD;ksa esa
    I rFkk We ds lkFk Shall dk iz;kx gksrk gS Will dk ugha gksxkA
  • iz;kx &
1-     Hkfo”; esa fdlh ds
gksus ds fy, bl dky dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA    
                      
He will come tomorrow.
I shall/will buy a new computer.
Will you buy a new computer.
2-     tc nks okD; Hkfo”;dky
dky dk cks/k djokrs gS rks ,d esa
Future Tense rFkk
nwljs esa
Present
Indefinite Tense
dk
iz;ksx gksrk gS ftl okD; esa le; dk cks/k djokus ’kCn tSl &
When, Whenever, While, Before, In case vkfn gks rks okD; dks Present Indefinite esa fy[kk tkrk gSA
When he comes, I shall play cards with him.
I shall wait for you until you comes back.
3- [kqyh ’krZ okys ’krZokpd okD; esa
bl dky dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
  
If she works
hard, she will get the first position.
FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE
·        
vFkZ & bl dky ds okD;ksa ls Kkr gksrk gS fd Hkfo”; esa dksbZ
dk;Z tkjh jgsxkA
  • igpku & fgUnh ds
    okD;ksa ds vUr esa jgk gksxk] jgh gksxh] jgs gksxs vkfn ’kCn vkrs gSA bl
    dky ds okD;ksa esa dk;Z ds yxkrkj tkjh jgus dk le; ugha fn;k gksrk gSa
·        
okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+Will/Shall+be+v1+ing+obj.
Neg – Sub+Will/Shall+not+be+v1+ing+obj.
Int – Will/Shall+Sub+be+v1+ing+obj?
·        
le; lqpd ’kCn & At this time/Moment tomorrow.
·        
Ikz;ksx &
1-      
bl dky dk iz;ksx ,sls dk;Z ds fy, gksrk gS tks Hkfo”; ls pkyw
gksdj dqN le; rd tkjh jgsxkA
He Will be watching T.V.
2-      
bl dky dk iz;ksx ,sls dk;Z ds fy, Hkh gksrk gS tks igys ls fuf’pr fd;k
gksA
We shall be playing tomorrow evening.
FUTURE PERFECT TENSE
·       vFkZ & bl dky ls izdV
gksrk gS fd dk;Z Hkfo”; esa lekIr gks tk;sxkA
·       igpku & fgUnh ds
okD;ksa ds vUr esa pqdsxk] pqdsxh] pqdksxs vkfn ’kCn vkrs gSA
·       okD; jpuk &
Aff – Sub+Shall/Will+Have+v3+obj.
Neg – Sub+Shall/Will+not+Have+v3+obj.
Int – Shall/Will+Sub+Have+v3+obj?
·       le; lwpd ’kCn & izk;: bu okD;ksa ds izkjEHk ;k vUr esa By+Time ;k
By be and of Time
They will have finished their work by
tomorrow evening.
·       Ikz;ksx &
1-      
bl dky dk iz;ksx ,sls dk;Z ds fy, gksrk gS tks Hkfo”; esa fdlh
fu/kkZfjr le; esa lekIr gks pqdsxkA
He will have learnt the book by next month.
2- bl Tense dk
iz;ksx le; lwpd miokD; ds lkFk Hkh gksrk gS tks miOkkD; esa le; crkrk gS mlesa
Pre
   
Present Indefinite
dk
iz;ksx gksrk gSA
   
When you come back, I shall have read the book.
FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
·       vFkZ & bl dky ds
okD;ksa esa dk;Z dk Hkfo”;dky esa tkjh jguk ik;k tkrk gSA
·       igpku & fgUnh ds
okD;ksa ds vUr esa ls jgk gksxk] ls jgh gksxh] ls jgs gksxs vkfn ’kCn vkrs gSA
·       okD; jpuk &                                                                          
Aff – Sub+Will/Shall+Have+been+v1+ing+obj+since/for+Time.
Neg – Sub+Will/Shall+not+Have+been+v1+ing+obj+since/for+Time.
Int – Will/Shall+Sub+Have+been+v1+obj+since/for+Time?
·       le; lwpd ’kCn & Since/for+Present Indefinite, since/for(by+Future
Time)
·       iz;ksx &
1-      
bl Tense dk iz;ksx Hkfo”; esa fdlh le;
fo’ks”k rd tkjh jgus okys dk;Z ds fy, gksrk gSA bl dky
ds okD;ksa esa Since/For/All ds lkFk & lkFk By+Time fn;k gks ldrk gSA
By the end of this month, we shall have been
reading in this school for two years.

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